The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
An epidural steroid injection places this powerful anti-inflammatory medication directly around the spinal nerves. Traditionally epidural injections were administered without any special equipment, by inserting the needle by feel in the area around the spinal nerves. More recently epidural injections have been administered with the aid of imaging tools to allow your physician to see the needle going to the proper location. Either real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy, or CT scan can be used to 'watch' the needle deliver the medication to the proper location.
I am deeply saddened by news of the death of Daniel Langdon Jones. Dan started the website back in 1995 and maintained in tirelessly for years. He started it on his own as an enthusiast, without my knowledge, and when i first encountered the site, the info on the exhaustive discography contained releases I didn’t even know about. I contacted him and became the “official” conduit of JG Thirlwell -related info on the internet, which I contributed to. He continued the run the site and we became good friends. We would correspond and talk on the phone regularly, and get together when we were in the same town. He traveled some distances to come to some of my shows. When I started the online Foetus shoppe, Dan also ran that for some years.