Most modern steroid enemas are foam based - as the likelihood of someone with colitis being able to retain a water based enema is quite low. These act topically applying the steroid directly to the colon - with only small amounts being absorbed into the bloodstream. This makes side effects less likely. The downside is that they can only reach the descending colon and rectum - so for those with extensive colitis oral steroids may be needed. A combination of Entocort and steroid enemas can provide topical treatment to the majority of the colon - again minimizing side effects. As the two main steroid enemas differ quite greatly I will cover them separately.
Along with its useful effects, prednisolone can cause unwanted side-effects which your doctor will discuss with you. The benefits of taking prednisolone usually outweigh the side-effects, although unwanted effects can sometimes be troublesome. The table below contains some of the most common ones. You will find a full list in the manufacturer's information leaflet supplied with your medicine. Although not everyone experiences side-effects, and some will improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine, you should speak with your doctor or pharmacist if you become concerned about any of the following:
If any of the following serious side effects occur, stop giving Prednisolone and seek emergency veterinary medical attention: an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; swelling of the lips, tongue or face; hives), increased blood pressure, or sudden weight gain. Other less serious side effects may occur. Continue giving Prednisolone and talk to your veterinarian if your pet experiences insomnia, nausea, vomiting or stomach upset, fatigue, muscle weakness or joint pain, problems with diabetes control, or increased hunger or thirst. Other side effects that occur rarely, usually with high doses of Prednisolone include thinning of the skin, cataracts, glaucoma, or behavior changes. Other side effects may also occur. Talk to your veterinarian about any side effect that seems unusual or bothersome to the animal.