Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous plant constituent found in plant cell walls, leaves and seeds. It is made from the metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. It occurs primarily in seeds and leaves both in its free form and covalently linked to lignin and other biopolymers. Due to its phenolic nucleus and an extended side chain conjugation, it readily forms a resonance stabilized phenoxy radical which accounts for its potent antioxidant potential. UV absorption by ferulic acid catalyzes stable phenoxy radical formation and thereby potentiates its ability to terminate free radical chain reactions. By virtue of effectively scavenging deleterious radicals and suppressing radiation-induced oxidative reactions, ferulic acid may serve an important antioxidant function in preserving physiological integrity of cells exposed to both air and impinging UV radiation. Similar photoprotection is afforded to skin by ferulic acid dissolved in cosmetic lotions. Its addition to foods inhibits lipid peroxidation and subsequent oxidative spoilage. By the same mechanism ferulic acid may protect against various inflammatory diseases. A number of other industrial applications are based on the antioxidant potential of ferulic acid.
The original brand name of oxandrolone was Anavar, which was marketed in the United States and the Netherlands .   This product was eventually discontinued and replaced in the United States with a new product named Oxandrin, which is the sole remaining brand name for oxandrolone in the United States.   Oxandrolone has also been sold under the brand names Antitriol ( Spain ), Anatrophill ( France ), Lipidex ( Brazil ), Lonavar ( Argentina , Australia , Italy ), Protivar, and Vasorome ( Japan ) among others.     Additional brand names exist for products that are manufactured for the steroid black market.