The latest asthma guidelines recommend a stepwise approach for managing asthma in children up to 4 years of age. This includes the use of quick-relief medications (such as albuterol ) for intermittent asthma symptoms. A low-dose of an inhaled steroid, cromolyn , or Singulair is the next step up. Then the intensity of the asthma treatment is focused on controlling their asthma. If the child's asthma is controlled for at least three months, your child's doctor may decrease the medication or "step down" the asthma treatment. Consult with your asthma specialist for exact medications and dosages.
Family history is a risk factor for asthma, with many different genes being implicated.  If one identical twin is affected, the probability of the other having the disease is approximately 25%.  By the end of 2005, 25 genes had been associated with asthma in six or more separate populations, including GSTM1 , IL10 , CTLA-4 , SPINK5 , LTC4S , IL4R and ADAM33 , among others.  Many of these genes are related to the immune system or modulating inflammation. Even among this list of genes supported by highly replicated studies, results have not been consistent among all populations tested.  In 2006 over 100 genes were associated with asthma in one genetic association study alone;  more continue to be found.